In recent years, the durability of concrete has been the subject of a few research projects carried out by several scientific and technical centres. As a major cause of concrete degradation around the world, reinforcing steel corrosion requires our full attention. This article analyses one of the phenomena at the origin of these disorders, namely the carbonation of concrete, and proposes some provisions to guard against it. The article is divided into two parts; the first describes the causes and consequences of the chemical process of carbonation as well as the means to protect it. The second deals with the influence factors on carbonation such as the minimum cement dosage, the type of cement, the water-cement ratio (W/C) and the reinforcement coating. Indeed, prismatic specimens (15 x 15 x 60 cm3) and cubic specimens (15 x 15 x 15 cm3) were made for different mixtures and with a W/C ratio of 0.50, 0.55 and 0.60. The prismatic specimens were subjected to a carbonation test, while the cubic specimens were used to determine the compressive strength, the corresponding density and the immersion water absorption.